Light Dark
  • News

  • Sports

  • Health

  • Uncategorized

  • SOCIÉTÉ

  • In English

  • Opinions

  • Conseil présidentiel

  • POLITIQUE

  • Load More

Loading
Posts in

News

1 / 1
*to close megamenu form press ESC or close toggle

Problems and perspectives of contemporary Creole lexicography: the need to revisit the teachings of the linguist Annegret Bolle

  • June 5, 2024
  • 142 Min
  • 8
problems-and-perspectives-of-contemporary-creole-lexicography:-the-need-to-revisit-the-teachings-of-the-linguist-annegret-bolle

Robert Berrouet Oriol By Robert Berrouët-Oriol

Linguist-terminologist

Montreal, June 4, 2024

“Lexicography is the branch of applied linguistics which aims to observe, collect, choose and describe the lexical units of a language and the interactions which take place between them. The object of its study is therefore the lexicon, that is to say all of the words and expressions with regard to their forms, their meanings and the way in which they combine with each other. » (Marie-Éva De Villers, “Profession lexicographer”, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2006.)

The article that we published on May 23, 2024 in Martinique and the United States, “The teaching-learning of mathematics in Creole put to the test of “interactive pedagogy” and “active aprantisaj” of the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti,” has caught the attention of various readers in Haiti, including Creole teachers. One of them, while specifying that he was unfamiliar with the history of Creole lexicography and its issues, asked us insistently (1) to recall the main characteristics of incomplete lexicographic works as well as those of lexicographic works quality. He also asked us (2) to shed additional light on the links existing between Creole lexicography and Creole translation and to show how they are useful both for the teaching of Creole and for the writing of Creole school textbooks. Furthermore, this teacher is curious to know why the Department of Linguistics of the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) covers with its legendary academic influence and its scientific aura the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative” that we presented in a rigorously analytical manner, in our article, as being a pre-scientific and fanciful work.

The article that we are publishing today provides an adequate and documented response to the relevant questions of the Haitian teacher while making the link with the central requirement of any lexicographic enterprise, namely the essential recourse to the methodology of lexicography professional. Let’s start with a useful reminder: in our text “The teaching-learning of mathematics in Creole put to the test of “interactive pedagogy” and “active aprantisaj” of the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti” it is specified that Over the last few years we have carried out the analytical evaluation of different lexicographic productions targeting Creole. Thus, in addition to the fanciful “Glossary” of the MIT Haiti Initiatire, we methodically evaluated on the one hand the incomplete lexicographic publications of Emmanuel Vedrine, Jocelyne Trouillot, Féquière Vilsaint and also those in the legal field developed in the environment of certain American academic institutions. On the other hand, of

in a comparative manner and for the sake of completeness, we have also carried out a methodical evaluation of several high-quality lexicographic productions – those of Vernet, Tourneux, Mirville, Bentolila, Freeman, Chery and Valdman. This analytical journey allowed us to develop our “Essay on the typology of Creole lexicography from 1958 to 2022” published in Haiti in Le National on July 21, 2022. In this essay – the only one to have been produced for the entire Creole lexicography from 1958 to 2022–, we have listed 64 dictionaries and 11 lexicons, for a total of 75 works published mostly in printed book format.

PART ONE: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS EXEMPLIFIED

Brief preliminary observations, to clearly situate the major issues of the critical analysis of a pedagogical, lexicographical and translational “model” that is heavily incomplete

It is useful to recall, ahead of this article, that in the text “The teaching-learning of mathematics in Creole put to the test of “interactive pedagogy” and “active aprantisaj” of the Inisyativ MIT- Ayiti”, we have demonstrated, with supporting reference documents, that (1) the pseudo educational “model” promoted by the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti – under the guise of “interactive pedagogy” based on the use of Creole mother tongue –, relies on a specious argument which does not explain how this “model” would actually be an interactive device; (2) that this educational “model” was not developed in response to the needs of Creole teachers and professors who teach mathematics and science in Creole; (3) that this pseudo “interactive pedagogy” is based on a pre-scientific, fanciful and erratic lexicon, the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative”. Falsely described as a “glossary”, this work, accessible only online on the Web, is in reality an English-Creole lexicon of around 800 terms. It is mainly characterized by the inadequacy of a large number of “Creole” equivalents with the terms of the source language, English: the system of notional and lexical equivalence is fanciful and erratic, it does not have was developed on the basis of the methodology of professional lexicography and a large number of “Creole” equivalents do not respect the morphosyntactic system of Creole. We have also demonstrated (4) that the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative” promotes a translational system that is seriously flawed and goes against the imperative of teaching Creole. This flawed translational device uses in many cases random “translational periphrases” in place of lexical units (what we designate by the term “entry” in dictionaries and lexicons). NOTE — The “lexical unit” (or “lexy”) is defined as follows: “Functional unit of discourse consisting of one or more words, which belongs to the lexicon of a given language and has a fixed meaning. For example, simple words (cat, sunshine), compound words (potato, unsaid) and expressions (little train goes far) are lexical units” (Great terminological dictionary of the Office québécois de la langue French). The “lexia” is the “Unit of the lexicon constituted by a single word or a group of words” (USITO dictionary, University of Sherbrooke. From the ancient Greek lexis “word;

word”, the term “lexie” is attested as early as 1962 in the renowned Trésor dictionary of the French language). The hazardous recourse to “translational periphrases” or even to “explanatory periphrases” – in the mode of a “circumvention process” of the difficulties of translating the terms of the source language – constitutes one of the greatest failures of contemporary Creole lexicography. Our analytical journey also highlighted (5) the fact that the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative” – cobbled together by editors who have no proven skills in Creole scientific and technical translation as elsewhere in Creole lexicography –, is housed in the banner of pre-scientific amateurism and “Borlette lexicography”. Relatedly, this “Glossary” promotes a pre-scientific, confused and anemic vision of Creole technical and scientific translation. It also promotes an amateurish, fanciful and erratic vision of Creole neology even though the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti claims, fraudulently, that it “enriches Creole” with new terms that teachers are invited to use in transmission in Creole. knowledge and scientific knowledge. Between the heavily methodologically deficient Creole lexicons and dictionaries and their lexicographical content and the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative”, there is a common characteristic: it is the ignorance of the methodology of the professional lexicography and its obligatory corollary, the promotion of pre-scientific amateurism. In comparative terms, the harmful potential of the Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative is certainly more extensive since the MIT-Ayiti Initiative benefits from the one-eyed complacency of the prestigious Department of Linguistics of the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT) and that it can count on the powerful logistics of certain American university institutions, including those which, in the depths of a characterized myopia, are not too “watchful” on the presumed “scientific” foundations of activities carried out towards countries formerly referred to by the virtuous term “Third World countries”…

With the greatest rigor, we must take full account that the pseudo educational “model” promoted by the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti – under the guise of “interactive pedagogy” based on the use of Creole as the mother tongue – is not managed to establish itself in the country’s schools despite the public political support of its main leader for the politico-mafia cartel of the neo-Duvalierist PHTK in the dark affair of the PSUGO. Careful consultation of the official website of the MIT Haiti Initiative did not make it possible to identify a single analytical document presenting the state of affairs, from 2015 to 2024, of the alleged implementation of the Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative in schools across the country. The official website of the MIT Haiti Initiative also does not present the slightest analytical document developed by the Ministry of National Education and in which this ministry would have recommended, for clearly identified pedagogical and didactic reasons, the use of the pre-scientific ” Glossary” from the MIT Haiti Initiative in schools across the country. Finally, in the register of a constant and myopic institutional complacency, it is highly significant that from 2015 to 2024 one of the main Haitian-American university bodies – the Haitian Studies Association – has at no time undertaken, in its Journal of Haitian Studies, any scientific evaluation of the Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative. On the official website of the Haitian Studies Association, it is however written that this university body “provides a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas in order to inform policies, practices and pedagogy concerning Haiti in worldwide ” ; (…) it works to “infuse new ideas into university research in order to make it relevant to the Haitian reality”… In the “Mission and Vision” chapter of the official website of the Haitian Studies Association, we have not traced, for the period 2015 to 2024, no thematic file specifically devoted to the Haitian linguistic question or devoted to the development of the two official languages ​​of Haiti in accordance with the Constitution of 1987 or devoted to the didactics/didactization of Creole. On this site, we have not found, for the period 2015 to 2024, any thematic file specifically devoted to the problem of linguistic educational policy in Haiti, nor to the linguistic/didactic dimension of a next and first policy national school book. We observe with complete objectivity that the Haitian Studies Association practices a voluntary myopia of variable geometry on these major subjects even though it claims to offer “a forum for the exchange and dissemination of knowledge and ideas in order to inform policies, practices and pedagogy concerning Haiti on a global scale”. We have traced only one exception to such voluntary myopia, this is the article “Lang matenèl, pedagoji enteraktif, lojisyèl edikatif nan Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti: “twa wòch dife” for good jan edikasyon ak inovasyon alawonnbadè ann Ayiti” (The Journal of Haitian Studies, 22(2), 2016, p. 128-141). The main “theses” conveyed in this article were taken up in a recent publication by the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti published in Nouvelliste on May 16, 2024. We have amply demonstrated the inconsistency and lack of rigor of these “theses” on “interactive pedagogy” in our article published on May 23, 2024 in Martinique and the United States, “L “teaching-learning of mathematics in Creole put to the test of “interactive pedagogy” and “active learning” of the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti”.

We observe, however, objectively, that the Haitian Studies Association still practices its dubious myopia of variable geometry with regard to the public support provided by the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti to the politico-mafia cartel of the neo-Duvalierist PHTK in the dark affair of the PSUGO. It should be remembered that from 2011 to 2024, no Haitian linguist, no civil society institution, no association of teachers or parents of students has publicly supported the PSUGO set up by the political-mafia cartel. of PHTK. Despite this, the kleptocratic PSUGO was publicly and blindly supported by the linguist Michel Degraff in the Revue transatlantique d’études suisses, 6/7, 2016/17: “The mother tongue as the foundation of knowledge: the MIT-Haiti initiative: towards effective and inclusive Creole education”. In this article, Michel DeGraff fraudulently claims that “There are already laudable efforts to improve the situation in Haiti, where quality education has traditionally been reserved for the few. A recent example is the Free and Compulsory Universal Education Program (PSUGO) launched by the Haitian government in 2011 with the aim of guaranteeing free and compulsory education to all children. » And in a video posted on YouTube during the month of June 2014, Michel Degraff

equally fraudulently maintains, without revealing its sources or providing irrefutable proof, that 88% of children go to school thanks to PSUGO: “Gras a program Psugo a 88 pousan timoun ale lekòl”. We observe that the Haitian Studies Association, a collective of academics experienced in scientific analysis and verification of the facts submitted to analysis, did not even take the trouble to verify the reality of Michel’s propagandist assertions. DeGraff by publishing, with blind complacency, the article “Lang matènèl, pedagoji enteraktif, lojisyèl edikatif nan Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti: “twa wòch dife” pou bon jan edikasyon ak inovasyon alawonnbadè ann Ayiti” (The Journal of Haitian Studies, 22 (2), 2016, pp. 128-141). Conversely, the FJKL (Fondasyon je klere), which is a Haitian institution known for its rectitude and the rigor of its analyzes and whose mission consists of “Promoting the defense and protection of human rights in Haiti”, has rigorously highlighted the malpractices of the PSUGO. On March 14, 2022, it released a 46-point report entitled “Universal, free and compulsory education program (PSUGO): embezzlement of public funds? Will the CSC/CA end up deciding on a technicality in this matter that contrasts with routine? » In this report, the FJKL considers that “The PSUGO file is one of the files on which the population wants a court decision to be taken, precisely on the management of these funds. The CSCCA [Cour supérieure des comptes et du contentieux administratif] must make a decision, as soon as possible, so that a beginning of clarification is provided, thus taking into account the legitimate expectations of the entire country and the Haitian diaspora strongly concerned in these deductions on behalf of the PSUGO. Previously, the PSUGO had been publicly denounced by Haitian teachers’ associations and various civil society organizations, as evidenced by very in-depth field surveys published in Haiti: “The PSUGO, a threat to education in Haiti? (parts I, II and III) – A process of weakening of the education system”, Ayiti kale je (Akj), AlterPresse, July 16, 2014. See also on the same site, “The PSUGO, a planned catastrophe” (parts I to IV), August 4, 2016. See also the very well-documented article “The Psugo, one of the biggest scams in the history of education in Haiti”, by Charles Tardieu, former Minister of National Education, Port -au-Prince, June 30, 2016.

PART TWO: ANCHORING ON THE FOUNDATION OF THE EPISTEMOLOGY OF LANGUAGE SCIENCES, POINTS FOR REFLECTION

Answering adequately the questions that were asked to us by the Creole teacher also requires remembering how necessary it is to expose the constant nature and continuity of our analytical approach over the years: as mentioned above, during In recent years we have carried out the analytical evaluation of several lexicons and dictionaries targeting Creole. This analytical approach was carried out according to the protocol of the methodology of professional lexicography and it allowed us to identify the lexicographic characteristics common to lexicons and dictionaries developed according to or outside the methodological base of professional lexicography. The basic principles of professional lexicography methodology are as follows: (1) determination of the editorial project, identification of

target users and presentation of the methodological model in the “Preface” or what takes its place; (2) identification and analysis of the reference corpus with a view to establishing the nomenclature; (3) establishment of the nomenclature of the terms retained at the stage of analyzing the reference corpus; (4) lexicographic treatment of the terms of the nomenclature and, for bilingual works, establishment of the conformity of the notional equivalence between the terms of the source language and those of the target language; (5) for dictionaries, writing of lexicographic information sections (categorization of lexical units, definitions, contexts of use of the term, notes of various kinds).

For information purposes, here is a sample of previous publications illustrating and illuminating the continuity of our analytical approach carried out according to the basic principles of professional lexicography methodology:

(1) “Konprann sa leksikografi kreyòl la ye, kote l sòti, kote l prale, ki misyon li dwe akonpli”, Fondas kreyòl, Martinique, April 5, 2024; (2) “Prolegomena to the development of the Haitian Creole lexicographic database”, Rezonòdwès, United States, April 16, 2024; (3) “Creole lexicography in Haiti: return-synthesis on its historical origins, its methodology and its contemporary challenges”, Fondas kreyòl, December 15, 2023; (4) “The “borlette lexicography” of the MIT Haiti Initiative has never been able to establish itself in Haiti in the Creole teaching of sciences and techniques”, Rezonòdwès, July 4, 2023; (5) “Plea for a Creole lexicography of high scientific, civic and unifying quality”, AlterPresse, Port-au-Prince, July 25, 2023; (6) “Typology essay on Creole lexicography from 1958 to 2022”, Le National, Port-au-Prince, July 21, 2022.

In terms of overall assessment and with regard to the lexicographic characteristics common to Creole lexicons and dictionaries developed according to or outside the methodological base of professional lexicography, what are the problems and prospects of contemporary Creole lexicography today? How can we explain that the editors of heavily incomplete Creole lexicons and dictionaries developed their works outside the methodology of professional lexicography even though – in the works of Pradel Pompilus from 1958 and 1961, in those of Vernet and Tourneux dated 1976 , in that of Bentolila dated 1976, in that of Mirville dated 1979, in those of Valdman from 1981, in that of Vernet and Freeman from 1988–, the basic principles of the methodology of professional lexicography are perfectly identifiable? How can we explain the appearance and persistence of a pre-scientific Creole lexicography, of a “Borlette lexicography” that is as incomplete as it is unproductive, even though the rigorous methodological system of the “Haitian Creole – English – French Dictionary” (vol. I and II) by Albert Valdman was known as early as 1981, the date of publication of this work of high scientific quality? On these different registers and with regard to the relevant questions asked to us by the Haitian Creole teacher, has the linguist Annegret Bollée left us a

major teaching both in terms of lexicology and lexicography, in connection with the epistemology of language sciences?

The essential recourse to the epistemology of language sciences: a brief introduction

Before approaching, in the mode of an exploratory synthesis, the enlightening teachings of the linguist Annegret Bollée, it is necessary to specify that our reflection and our analytical approach, for all the works of Creole lexicography from 1958 to our days, are located on a much broader register, that of the epistemology of language sciences – epistemology being understood here in the sense of the “Theory of knowledge, study of the constitution of valid knowledge” (Le Robert). Epistemology (from the ancient Greek ἐπιστήμη / epistếmê, “true knowledge, science” and λόγος / lógos / “discourse”) is first and foremost the study of scientific knowledge. It is also the critical study of a particular science, as to its evolution, its value, and its scientific and philosophical significance. In general, for us it is a question of establishing a lasting break with the essentialization of Creole, with the totemized folklorization of Creole adorned with multiple curative or “revolutionary” virtues among the sosyete kreyolis endijenis, the activists self-proclaimed creolists and linguist-ideologues on a perpetual catechetical crusade. Against the current of the confinement and ideological wanderings of the fundamentalist creolists, it is for us, on the epistemological level, to explore to understand, to explore to know, to explore to appropriate the modeling of specialized knowledge, to explore in order to share and disseminate specialized knowledge – and the epistemology of language sciences offers a broad and powerful theoretical and analytical framework to achieve this.

On a historical level, it is attested that apart from Albet Valdman, Marie-Christine Hazaël-Massieux, Annegret Bollée and Renauld Govain, very few Creolist linguists have explored one or the other contribution of the epistemology of language sciences in their theoretical or lexicographic works. The research work of the Society for the History and Epistemology of Language Sciences, the SHESL, even though this institution was founded at the end of the 1970s, was not really called upon by creolistics, which was more occupied with primarily study the syntax and phonology of Haitian Creole. “The Society for the History and Epistemology of Language Sciences is a learned society founded in January 1978. Although it has always worked in close collaboration with the History of Linguistic Theories (HTL) laboratory, the SHESL (…) is among its members are researchers from all over the world. SHESL works to promote the study of linguistic ideas, in all periods, areas and fields, as long as this field is linked to the theorization of language, to the production of linguistic materials (lexicons, grammars, automatic analyzers, etc.), or to the social or institutional aspects of scientific research in the field of language sciences. The study of linguistic ideas includes both historical and meta-theoretical (or “epistemological”) aspects. The historical dimension involves documenting and questioning theoretical models from other eras and traditions,

social and institutional organization, and the production of linguistic artifacts. Historical research contributes to understanding the social, cultural and scientific context, actors and schools, as well as the formation and evolution of linguistic ideas. Epistemology offers critical perspectives on all aspects of the sciences of language: linguistics, grammar, rhetoric, logic, poetics, exegesis, pragmatics, philosophy of language, semiotics. The two complementary fields, historical and epistemological, overlap” (source: website of the Society for the History and Epistemology of Language Sciences). [Le souligné en gras est de RBO]

For all of Creolistics, and particularly for Creole lexicography, the epistemology of language sciences is an essential conceptual and analytical contribution allowing us to adequately reflect on the mode of production of Creole dictionaries and lexicons and the characterization of the tools. lexicographies themselves resulting from a professional practice of lexicography as a standardized and autonomous field of applied linguistics. The epistemology of language sciences provides Creole lexicography with the path to “The study of linguistic ideas [qui] has both historical and meta-theoretical (or “epistemological”) aspects. On these registers, we observe that the conceptual and analytical contribution of the epistemology of language sciences is already at work in the field of creolistics, among others in the work of GRESKA at the Faculty of Applied Linguistics ( FLA) from the State University of Haiti. Founded in March 2022 by the linguist-semantician Molès Paul, teacher-researcher at the FLA, “GRESKA (Gwoup rechèch sou sans nan kreyòl ayisyen) is a grouping of specialists in meaning and people who are interested in producing knowledge ; it was created with the aim of producing and publishing research on the meaning in Haitian Creole in collaboration with other researchers in linguistics” (see the article “Creole in higher education in Haiti: the pioneers, the publications -flagship, research laboratories (interview with linguist Moles Paul)”, by Robert Berrouët-Oriol, Médiapart, Paris, November 21, 2023). The epistemology of language sciences is put to use in a methodical quest consisting of thinking and modeling Haitian linguistics. This is the meaning of the article “Pou yon lengwistik ayisyen” developed by Moles Paul, Francklyn Dorcé and Jean Odelin Petit Frère, three linguists from GRESKA, published in the first issue of the journal “Rechèch etid kreyòl” dated October 2022 and devoted to the writing of Creole. The authors specify upstream of this text that “Nan atik sa a, nou jete baz teyorik yon lengwistik ayisyen. We are looking for different types of research that don’t have a long history and that’s what we’re looking for. At the end of the day, we can see that the length of the lens is still there and it’s not a cross-section, we show you the meaning you’re looking for. [Le souligné en italiques et gras est de RBO]

One of the major contributions of the epistemology of language sciences to Creole lexicography will consist of providing it with the instruments for its most stable and productive anchoring in a reflective field where lexicology sheds light on Creole lexicography,

thus extending a reflection on a mode of knowledge and a practice, that of the production of dictionaries and lexicons (see our articles “Prolegomena to the development of the Haitian Creole lexicographic database”, Rezonòdwès, April 16, 2024, and “Plea for a Creole lexicography of high scientific, civic and unifying quality”, AlterPresse, Port-au-Prince, July 25, 2023). It should be noted that analytical reflection relating to the epistemology of language sciences is already present in the “Language, Society, Education (LangSÉ)” laboratory of the Faculty of Applied Linguistics of the State University of Haiti. Created in 2014, this laboratory conducts research in different fields while its “privileged field remains theoretical and descriptive linguistics, a linguistics oriented towards creolistics. His work mainly focuses on Haiti and the Creole-speaking Caribbean. Creolistics in general and French Creoles in particular constitute his priority. The LangSÉ also has the mission of welcoming doctoral students preparing a thesis in linguistics, in language sciences in general, in educational sciences with a problem involving a linguistic question (of society or education) concerning the Haitian community or the Caribbean” (source: LangSÉ website). This research laboratory publishes with the assistance of Éditions JEBCA an innovative academic journal, “Rechèch etid kreyòl” whose articles are written in Creole. It is the only Haitian academic journal that offers theoretical reflection in the Creole language: the production of Haitian linguistic thought at an academic level in the Creole language is in fact a first in Haiti. The publication of the third issue of this journal is scheduled for September 2024 and the theme covered is “Creole in education in the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean: history, evolution, socio-didactic perspectives”. The call for papers was written in Haitian Creole, Seychellois, Martinican, French and English.

PART THREE: THE ESSENTIAL CONNECTION TO THE METHODOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF PROFESSIONAL LEXICOGRAPHY

Problems and perspectives of contemporary Creole lexicography: in the spotlight, serious methodological deficiencies

As previously mentioned in the course of this article, it is amply attested that all the artisans of a lacunar, deficient and erratic Creole lexicography – Vedrine, Trouillot, Cadely and Vilsaint, like the DIY editors of the Inisyativ MIT-Ayiti–, ignore the contributions and achievements of Creole lexicography from 1958 to the present day, from the pioneering work of Pradel Pompilus to the rigorous lexicographical work of Vernet, Tourneux, Bentolila, Mirville, Freeman, Chery and Valdman. It is also attested, as we have demonstrated in one and the other of the thirty articles that we have devoted to Creole lexicography in recent years, that the artisans of a lacunar, deficient and erratic Creole lexicography, have developed their lexicons and dictionaries in ignorance of the methodology of professional lexicography (see our article “Creole lexicography in Haiti: return-synthesis on its historical origins, its methodology and its contemporary challenges”, Fondas kreyòl,

December 15, 2023). Such gaps exemplify the observation that deficient and incomplete Creole lexicography has not been able to assimilate the knowledge recorded in leading studies: it is therefore necessary to provide documentary references in which various authors have approached these knowledge from different angles.

The following studies have in common that they offer an analytical reflection on both the epistemological dimension and the foundations of the Creole lexicographic enterprise and on the Creole dictionaries resulting from the practice of professional lexicography. This is the case with the studies of the linguist-lexicographer Albert Valdman: (1) “The evolution of the lexicon in creoles with a French lexical base” published in L’information grammaticale no 85, March 2000), (2) “Towards standardization of Haitian Creole” (French Revue of Applied Linguistics, 2005/1 (vol. One of his major books, “Haitian Creole. Structure, Variation, Status, Origin” (Equinox Publishing Ltd, 2015), Albert Valdman provides a detailed description of productive vocabulary development strategies and discusses the origin of the Creole lexicon. Haitian (chapters 5 and 6, pages 139 to 188: “The Structure of the Haitian Creole Lexicon”).

Rigorous reflection on the production of Creole lexicographic tools is also attested in the extensive and very well documented studies of the linguist Marie-Christine Hazaël-Massieux, notably (1) “Les corpora creoles”, Revue française delinguistique appliqué 1996/2 (vol. I); (2) “Prolegomena to a Creole neology”, Revue française delinguistique appliqué 2002/1 (vol. VII); (3) “French-based Creoles: an introduction”, published in the Interdisciplinary Works of the Speech and Language Laboratory, vol. 21, 2002; (4) “On the interest of Maurice Barbotin’s Dictionary of Creole by Marie-Galante”, published in Créolica, September 2004; (5) “Theories of the genesis or history of creoles: the example of the development of Caribbean creoles”, published in Linguistics 2005/1 (vol. 41); (6) “Ancient texts in French Creole from the Caribbean. History and analysis” (Paris, Publibook, 2008). (A scholarly work, this book identifies (pages 471 to 480) ancient texts in Creole produced between 1640 and 1822.) Marie-Christine Hazaël-Massieux also published (7) “Creoles with a French lexical base” (Paris, Ophrys, 2011). She is also the author of an imposing “Bibliography of Creole Studies.” Languages, cultures, societies” (Institute of Creole and Francophone Studies, University of Aix-en-Provence, 1991).

The analytical contributions of the linguist Renauld Govain also fuel a transversal reflection capable of enriching reflection on Creole lexicography. These analytical contributions are recorded in the following articles: (1) “Teaching Creole at school in Haiti: between didactic practices, linguistic contexts and realities on the ground”, in Frédéric Anciaux, Thomas Forissier and Lambert-Félix: see Prudent ( dir.), “Didactic Contextualizations. Theoretical approaches”, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2013; (2) “The state of play of Creole in educational establishments in Haiti”, Contextes et didactiques review, 4, 2014; (3) “Haitian Creole: description and analysis” (under the direction of Renauld Govain, Paris, Éditions L’Harmattan, 2018; (4)

vain, Paris, Éditions L’Harmattan, 2018; (4

e in Haiti: a journey to build”, Kreolistika magazine, March 2021; (5) “From vernacular expression to scientific elaboration: Haitian Creole put to the test of meta-epilinguistic representations” (contexts et didactiques review, 17 | 2021); (6) “For a teaching of Creole as a mother tongue”, published in the collective reference book “The teaching of Creole at the heart of linguistic planning in Haiti”, by Berrouët-Oriol et al., Éditions Zémès and Éditions du Cidihca , 2021.

Problems and perspectives of contemporary Creole lexicography: the major lessons of the linguist Annegret Bollée

For her part, Annegret Bollée (1937 – 2021) teacher-researcher at the Otto-Friedrich University (Bamberg, Germany) is the author of numerous books and articles published in German, French and English and her research work has deeply marked European creolism. One of his flagship studies is titled “Creole Lexicography: Problems and Perspectives” (French Revue of Applied Linguistics, volume X-1, 2005).

In the introduction to this highly analytical study, Annegret Bollée specifies that [sa] “Contribution is divided into two sections: after a brief historical overview of Creole glossaries and dictionaries, the first of which date from the 17th century and which have not yet reached the final stage of the monolingual dictionary, we will discuss the problems and methods of Creole lexicography. These are often problems specific to languages ​​which have recently had access to writing or for which we are in the process of developing a written code.

In the “History” chapter, the author provides very relevant chronological insight and it is useful to quote her at length: “Like the description of many other languages, Creole lexicography begins with glossaries and dictionaries compiled by missionaries. The very first Creole dictionaries are the work of two Moravian Brothers: the Criolisches Wörterbuch by CGA Oldendorp (1767-68), dictionary of Negerhollands (“Negro Dutch”) which was spoken in the Virgin Islands until the 20th century, and the Wörterbuch des Saramakkischen by JA Riemer (1779). The latest of the religious works is the Dictionary of Creole by Marie-Galante (1994) by Father Barbotin. “The founding work” (Fattier, 1997, 256) of the lexicography of French Creoles, the French-Creole vocabulary in the Manuel des Habitants de Saint-Domingue by the Jesuit missionary SJ Ducœurjoly (1802), is a very valuable source for the history of Haitian vocabulary. This glossary containing 395 entries, followed by French-Creole conversations, was intended for future settlers of Saint-Domingue. With a view to this public, the vocabulary concerning colonial realities (flora, fauna, food, cane cultivation, etc.) is favored in the nomenclature (Fattier, 1997, 260).” [Le souligné en gras est de RBO]

Annegret Bollée aptly mentions that “Most glossaries accompany the first grammatical descriptions undertaken either by amateurs or by linguists who are among the pioneers of Creole studies. To the first category belongs the book Creole Philology (1936, 1937) by the Haitian Jules Faine, who strives, in an “etymological glossary” of 1,566 entries, to prove that Creole is “above all a survival of these old dialects [normand, picard, angevin, poitevin, etc.] now extinct” (1937, XI). Given the limited documentation available to him, we are not surprised to note that his results are not always reliable, but his glossary contains a good number of words which are not attested elsewhere. The same remark can be made about the French-Creole Dictionary (1974), published after his death by a team under the direction of Gilles Lefebvre [du Centre de recherche en lexicographie de l’Université de Montréal]. Among the linguists who paved the way for modern creolistics is Robert A. Hall Jr., whose study Haitian Creole. Grammar-Textes-Vocabulary (1953) served as a model for other descriptions, e.g. A. Bollée, The French Creole of the Seychelles (1977), and I. Neumann, The Creole of Breaux Bridge, Louisiana (1985). The glossaries of these works only offer French equivalents of Creole words, but the references to the grammar and texts in Bollée and Neumann allow them to be found in the context of their use(s).”

To the extent that she studies Creole dictionaries, Annegret Bollée excludes from her chronological survey the lexicons developed by the pioneer of Creole lexicography in Haiti, Pradel Pompilus, author of the “French Creole Lexicon” (University of Paris, 1958). ) and the “Lexicon of Creole Patois of Haiti” (Syndicat national de l’édition, Paris, 1961). She also does not mention the “Little lexicon of Haitian popular beliefs” by Joris Ceuppons and Roger Désir (Éditions Bon nouvèl, 1973).

Continuing the historical and chronological clearing of Creole dictionary production, Annegret Bollée teaches us that “The stage of dictionaries strictly speaking begins in the 1970s, the 80s being particularly fruitful for the lexicography of French Creoles. All Creole dictionaries published to date are bilingual, generally Creole-French/Portuguese/Dutch, etc., or trilingual Creole-English-French (Valdman, 1981; Baker & Hookoomsing, 1987; Valdman et al., 1998). ). Some are accompanied by a reverse lexicon (Valdman, 1981; Ludwig & al., 1990; Valdman & al., 1998); only Dijkhoff (1985) and Mondesir (1992) feature Nederlands-Papiaments and English-Kwéyòl parts respectively. The Elementary French-Creole Dictionary by Pierre Pinalie (1992) is aimed at the “French-speaking newcomer” who wants to learn Martinican Creole. To do this, he will find “in this work 4,500 French words and nearly 15,000 Creole words, expressions, turns of phrase or sentences intended to help the learner who seeks to express his thoughts in a traditional Creole […] grammatically correct” (1992, 7)”. Annegret Bollée also specifies that “The first attempt at a monolingual dictionary, undertaken in the 1990s at Lenstiti Kreol in the Seychelles, was unsuccessful. The major problem for future authors of monolingual Creole dictionaries is, according to M.-C. Hazaël-Massieux (1997,

241) “the delicate, but oh so interesting, question of the “definition” which she addressed in several publications (see the bibliography in the 1997 article). On the one hand, they will come up against the technical problems of “the non-existence of an adequate metalanguage” and the “insufficiency of the available vocabulary”, on the other hand, the fact that “the foundations of a true Creole semantics”, in other words, the description of the lexicon by notional fields, as undertaken by R. Chaudenson (1974) for Reunionese, remains to be done for other Creoles (1997, 242-3).” [Le souligné en gras est de RBO]

The “technical problems of “the non-existence of an adequate metalanguage” and “the insufficiency of the available vocabulary” mentioned by Annegret Bollée were addressed by Albert Valdman and Renauld Govain. In his remarkable study “Towards the standardization of Haitian Creole” (French Review of Applied Linguistics, 2005/1 (vol. monolingual reference dictionaries The advanced level of CH standardization. [créole haïtien] is reflected by around fifteen dictionaries (…). But these are for the most part bilingual dictionaries intended for predominantly American alloglots or members of the second generation of the diaspora, and which only secondarily target the lexicographic needs of the Haitian population. (…) “The most difficult handicap to overcome in the development of a monolingual dictionary for CH [créole haïtien] is certainly the absence of an adequate metalanguage. In her attempt to develop such a dictionary, Jocelyne Trouillot (sd) [auteure du « Diksyonè kreyòl karayib » Éditions CUC Université Caraïbe, 2003] defines bal “(firearm) bullet” by a more specialized hyperonym: “Pwojektil ki ka touye yon moun ki resevwa l” “Projectile capable of killing a person who receives it”. This is indeed the procedure followed by Petit Larousse or Le Robert, but which comes up against the fact that this term is not part of the usual vocabulary of monolinguals. More appropriate would be the model from the Haitian School Dictionary, derived from Hachette Junior, which offers the definition: “A small metal object projected by a firearm.” It is from this model, where lexies are defined by a concrete approach based on the play of synonyms and the use of illustrative examples, that lexicographers ready to face the challenge of developing a dictionary should draw inspiration. unilingual for CH [créole haïtien]. As the use of CH extends to technical fields, it will acquire a metalanguage capable of dealing with increasingly abstract concepts. While awaiting this evolution, bilingual lexicography can refine its methods, on several points: (1) the selection of nomenclature, (2) the census of variants and the diatopic, diastratic and diaphasic classification of lexies, and (3 ) the choice of illustrative examples, which I will discuss in turn briefly (for more details, see Valdman, 2005)”. [Le souligné en italiques et gras est de RBO] (About the “Dictionary of the Haitian Schoolboy”, published by Hachette/Deschamps in 1996, see our article “The “Dictionary of the Haitian Schoolboy”, a rigorous model for lexicography in Haiti”, Fondas kreyòl, 16 September 2022.)

NOTE — About “diatopic”, “diastratic” and “diaphasic”: notional clarification.

“Diatopy”: “Variation of a language according to the spatial parameter”. “Diatopic”: “Set of sociolinguistic characteristics making it possible to define the geographical position of a person based on their way of speaking, the vocabulary they use and which is specific to the region in which they live.

“Diastratic” / “The diastratic variation”. “Diastratic variation of language is social and demographic variation, that is, linguistic variation linked to social groups and life in society. The study of diastratic variation accounts, for example, for the differences between the language of young people and that of the elderly, between the language of rural groups and that of urban groups; it also accounts for linguistic differences between professional groups or finally differences according to the level of study of the speakers. Linguistic variation linked to a professional environment or a specialization defines a technolect. Linguistic variation linked to social group defines a sociolect; age groups are assimilated to social groups.”

“Diaphasia”: “Variation of a language depending on the context of use”. Adj. : “Diaphasic”.

“Diastratia”: “Linguistic variation within a social community”.

(Source: HISTOLF, Faculty of Letters, Translation and Communication, Free University of Louvain, nd).

For his part, the linguist Renauld Govain, in the study “From vernacular expression to scientific elaboration: Haitian Creole put to the test of meta-epilinguistic representations” (contexts et didactiques review, 17 | 2021), addresses “The question of the (un)availability of concepts in CH, a real false problem”. He specifies that “Good, right-thinking souls claim that the CH [créole haïtien] is not capable of expressing scientific realities because the concepts to do so would not exist there. It is obvious that language has certain limits at this level because this experiment has hardly yet been attempted in all areas of science. To consider that a language has limits in the expression of a particular type of intellectual reality, we compare it to other languages ​​which have a long tradition of scientific expression. But, that doesn’t mean that this one is poor and these are rich. From the point of view of the expression of vernacular realities, a language cannot be considered poor because it allows its speakers to be able to express everything. And Renauld Govain clarifies his thoughts as follows: “When Haitians talk about the unavailability of concepts in CH [créole haïtien], they refer more to the disciplines of so-called basic sciences, such as mathematics, medicine, biology, physics, etc. But, if we really had to talk about the unavailability of concepts in CH [créole haïtien], this would also arise at the level of the teaching of disciplines relating to what we could call situated sciences such as history, geography, sociology, climatology, etc. which sometimes call upon concepts based on locally situated experiences. For example, Haitian students continue to be taught that there are 4 seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter), while observing

Empirical analysis of Haitian (or Caribbean more generally) climatology shows that there is only one season which could be divided into a dry period (which Haitian cultivating peasants generally call “lesèk”) and a rainy period (which ‘they generally call it “lepli”). The problem of didactic contextualization therefore arises, an idea of ​​which can be given on this subject in R. Govain (2013). Since teaching is done in a specific context, it must embrace the specificities of this context: “A concept with variable geometry whose precise meaning varies depending on the discipline to which it is applied, the context must be considered in various facets: educational, institutional, educational, (socio)linguistic, ethnic, economic, sociocultural, ecological, political… Any situation “school ation in a multilingual environment involves the notions of context and contextualization” (Govain, 2013: 23-53)”. [Pour une plus ample exploration des notions liées de contexte, contextualisation, didactisation, voir l’article de Renauld Govain et Guerlande Bien-Aimé, « Pour une didactique du créole haïtien langue maternelle » paru dans le livre collectif de référence « La didactisation du créole au cœur de l’aménagement linguistique en Haïti » (Robert Berrouët-Oriol et al, Éditions Zémès, Port-au-Prince, et Éditions du Cidihca, Montréal, 2021.]

The existing links between Creole lexicography and Creole scientific and technical terminology as well as reflection on the unavailability/availability diptych of scientific vocabularies are also addressed by Renauld Govain. Thus, one of the highlights of his analytical reflection is recorded in the following statement: “As to whether the CH [créole haïtien] is capable of expressing scientific experiences, the militant essay by Judith Blanc [« E si sikoloji kognitif ka demanti lejann ke kreyòl pa lang lasyans ? », Les classiques des sciences sociales, 2016] is enlightening. [Elle] suggests that we use 1) the CH [créole haïtien], language practiced by all Haitians living in Haiti, to create a scientific vocabulary in order to express science in general; 2) existing scientific terminology in other languages ​​to enrich the conceptual aspect of CH (among other useful arguments). We often wrongly accuse language of being a problem, believing that it is a barrier in the expression of scientific realities. However, it is only solutions. It is a toolbox and the tools are diverse and varied. There is something for all kinds of actions and occasions. The user does not need to look elsewhere for tools to solve their expression problems, whatever they may be. In case he is unable to find any that respond immediately and perfectly to his activities, he could always use those that are available by adjusting them, adapting them to the specificities of the expression. As indicated in the summary on the back cover of Bertrand, Gerner and Stumpf (2007), “language remains the center of the process of appropriation of knowledge and the result of an enunciative or linguistic choice. The history of science must therefore be compared with the history of scientific terminology, the choices of which are at the same time linguistic, enunciative, cultural and also social.[Seealsoourarticle“ScientificandtechnicalneologyanessentialaidtothedidactizationofHaitianCreole”publishedinthecollectivereferencebook“ThedidactizationofCreoleattheheartoflinguisticplanninginHaiti”(RobertBerrouët-OriolandalÉditionsZémèsPort-[Voirégalementnotrearticle«Lanéologiescientifiqueettechniqueunindispensableauxiliairedeladidactisationducréolehaïtien»parudanslelivrecollectifderéférence«Ladidactisationducréoleaucœurdel’aménagementlinguistiqueenHaïti»(RobertBerrouët-OrioletalÉditionsZémèsPort-

au-Prince, and Éditions du Cidihca, Montreal, 2021.) [Le souligné en italiques et gras est de RBO]

The analytical insight of Valdman and Govain having been presented, we can now return to the study of Annegret Bollée, “Creole lexicography: problems and perspectives” (French Revue de LinguisticsApplique, volume X-1, 2005).

Continuing her analytical demonstration, Annegret Bollée explains, in chapter 3 of her text, “Problems and methods of Creole lexicography”, that “The problems and methods of Creole lexicography are in principle the same as for the description of other languages. Certain specific problems arise, however, for three reasons:

1. –because of the function and importance of dictionaries in the context of linguistic planning and lexical enrichment of languages ​​newly acquired in writing;

2. –because of the fact that Creoles come from basic languages ​​and coexist, in most cases, with these languages ​​in the same linguistic communities;

3. –because of the sociolinguistic situation of diglossia which, in the recent past, shows signs of change in the direction of a less rigid distribution of “high” and “low” varieties: on the one hand, the Creoles, low varieties according to the classic description of Ferguson, have conquered ground in the areas of the high variety, on the other hand, these languages ​​traditionally stigmatized as “slave languages”, have gained prestige.

NOTE – The notion of “diglossia” is subject to debate and has been criticized by several Haitian linguists, including Yves Dejean, author of “Nouveau voyage en diglossie” (mimeoed, Regional Bilingual Training Resource Center, Brooklyn, 1979) and “ Diglossia revisited: French and Creole in Haiti”, Word magazine 34: 3, 1983; see also Darline Cothière, “Creole and French in Haiti: can we still talk about diglossia? », Transatlantic Review of Swiss Studies, 6/7 – 2016/17.

In subchapter 3.1 of her article, “Macrostructure”, Annegret Bollée specifies that “When establishing the nomenclature [du dictionnaire]a number of fundamental questions must be taken into consideration:

· the problem of diatopic variation: in the presence of several varieties, one can choose one or take into account all the variants which should then be duly marked;

· a specific problem in the description of Creoles, namely the difficulty of delimiting a properly Creole lexicon in the context of diglossia with the base language;

· the question of selection, which mainly concerns technical and scientific vocabulary and leads to the problem of enriching the vocabulary.

For lexicographers who intend to provide their public with a tool that makes them capable of producing speeches or texts relating to areas traditionally reserved for the high variety (newspaper articles, school books, etc.), the question of he enrichment of vocabulary, often discussed in a lively, even polemical manner, is unavoidable. As we know, there are two options for the creation of new words: we can “creolize” the lexicon of the high variety (French in the DOM, English or French in Mauritius and the Seychelles, Portuguese in Cape Verde), or create neologisms from Creole bases. Judging by the testimony of the LPT and the DKSF (1999), in Mauritius and the Seychelles the Creole lexicon has been enriched by hundreds of neologisms, almost all technical and scientific terms borrowed from French, comparable to the waves of scholarly words which have enriched the French lexicon since the Middle Ages, especially in the 14th and 16th centuries. To get an idea, here are some examples of French words whose Creole equivalents are attested only in LPT and DKSF (1999): concept, conciliation, reconcile, conditioning, conditioner, confiscation, confisquer, conforme, conformiste, conformité, congenital , conjunctivitis, conjuncture, conjunctural, conjugation, connivance”. [NOTE – Décodage des sigles dans l’étude de Annegret Bollée : LPT=Ledikasyon pu Travayer, 1985 : Diksyoner kreol-angle / Île Maurice. DKSF=Diksyonner kreol-franse (D’Offay & Lionnet, 1982 : DKSF 1982). 2e éd. : St. Jorre & Lionnet, 1999 (DKSF 1999).]

Subchapter 3.2 of Annegret Bollée’s article deals with “lemmatization”.

NOTE 1 — Before explaining how Annegret Bollée approaches the notion of “lemmatization” in her article, it is appropriate to define it. As we will see later in this article, for Creole lexicography the notions of “lemmatization”, “lemma” and “lexical unit” are basic notions necessarily present in the process of developing a dictionary. or a lexicon from the stage of determining the reference corpus and then establishing the nomenclature: this includes all the terms retained and recorded in the dictionary and which will be the subject of definitions (and notes if necessary) according to a standardized editorial protocol consistent with the methodology of professional lexicography. The notions of “lemmatization”, “lemma” and “lexical unit” are of primary importance with regard to the basic principles of the methodology of professional lexicography that we have previously mentioned. It is therefore appropriate to dwell briefly on them to shed light on their notional field.

Lemmatization is understood in the sense of “The action of lemmatizing, of giving (a word) the canonical form that it has, for example, in a dictionary; result of this action. Lemmatization of dictionary entries” (Le Robert). Using the definition given by the CILF [Conseil international de la langue française] in 1978, the Great Terminological Dictionary of the Office québécois de la langue française noted that “lemmatization” is the “Operation consisting of grouping the occurring forms of a text or a list under lexical addresses”. The definition of “lemmatization” given in the “Grand French lexicon of artificial intelligence” on the DataFrance portal is more enlightening: “In automatic natural language processing, lemmatization is a procedure allowing a word bearing marks of inflection (for example, the conjugated form of a verb: would like) to its reference form (called lemma: to love). In other words, in the context of computer text analysis or automatic language processing in general, it is a matter of recognizing a word in relation to its basic form, whatever the the form in which it appears in a text. Lemmatization is thus used for the morphological recognition of words in a text. Simply put, lemmatization amounts to transforming a word into its lemma which roughly corresponds to its entry in a dictionary.

NOTE 2 — “In linguistics, a lemma is an autonomous unit constituting the lexicon of a language. Synonyms: lexia, lexical item, lexical unit”. The lemma therefore designates “a sequence of characters constituting a semantic unit. To simplify, this covers the imprecise notion of “word”. Additional defining feature: “We often designate by lemma the canonical form of a word. That is to say that this reference form of the lemma does not bear the marks of inflection and makes it possible to bring together under a single term, the different morphological forms of a word. By convention, lemmas can apply the same rules as a dictionary entry. The lemma of a verb is its infinitive form and the masculine singular for an adjective or a common noun. Examples: verb: speak (lemma): speak, speak, speak, speak, speak, spoke; adjective: small (lemma), small, small, small, small” (source: SemanticAll, “Semantic Automations”, nd). The Great Terminological Dictionary defines “lexical unit” as follows: “Functional unit of discourse consisting of one or more words, which belongs to the lexicon of a given language and has a fixed meaning”. (On the problem of “lexical unit”, see the study by Fabienne Cusin-Berche, “The notion of “lexical unit” in linguistics and its use in lexicology”, Linx, Revue des linguistes de l’Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, 40 | 1999; thematic issue “The status of lexical unit”). On the same issue, see Gérard Petit, of the University of Paris see also Salah Mejri, “Neology and lexical unity: theoretical renewal, polylexicality and use”, journal Langages 2011/3, no 183; see also Alain Polguère, “Lexicology and lexical semantics – Fundamental notions”, 3rd edition, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2016.)

As mentioned above, subchapter 3.2 of Annegret Bollée’s article deals with “lemmatization”. She records her approach in the following way: “We set aside from our reflections the problems of the graphization of creoles which are treated in other contributions to this volume, to quickly draw attention to an aspect which, according to our experiences with the Seychellois dictionary and the Etymological Dictionary of French Creoles of the Indian Ocean, seems particularly thorny to us, even insoluble in all rigor: the problem of dividing lexical units (cf. Bollée, 2001)”. (…) “The lexicographers that we review here distinguish convincingly between homonymy and polysemy, only Barthelemi groups together in a single

entry different words which, even in a ‘practical’ dictionary, should be separated, cf. the entries ba ‘build, down, give, yield’, mo ‘me, word’ or pa ‘not, by, leave’. When it comes to polyseme words, most lexicographers group the different meanings of a word into a single article, but HCEF, DCGF, and ADKR o may, if necessary, have several entries, without however agreeing on their number. [Le souligné en italiques et gras est de RBO] —[NOTE1–Regardingthe“problemofdividinglexicalunits”seebelowthequestionof“translationalphraseology”/“definitivephraseology”usedinplaceoflexicalunits[NOTE–DecodingofacronymsdesignatingdictionariesinthestudybyAnnegretBollée:HCEF=HaitianCreole–English-FrenchDictionaryAlbertValdman1981DCGF=Dictionnairecréole-françaisPoullet&al(DCGF1984)2nded:Ludwigetal(DCGF1990)ADKR=Rénié-FrenchKreolDictionary(ADKR)Armand1987[NOTE1–Àproposdu«problèmedudécoupagedesunitéslexicales»voirplusbaslaquestiondela«phraséologietraductionnelle»/«phraséologiedéfinitoire»employéeenlieuetplacedesunitéslexicales[REMARQUE–Décodagedessiglesdésignantlesdictionnairesdansl’étudedeAnnegretBollée:HCEF=HaitianCreole–English-FrenchDictionaryAlbertValdman1981DCGF=Dictionnairecréole-françaisPoullet&al(DCGF1984)2eéd:Ludwig&al(DCGF1990)ADKR=Dictionnairekréolrénioné-français(ADKR)Armand1987

Entitled “Microstructure”, sub-chapter 3.3 explains the nature and role of “microstructure” and puts it into perspective in relation to the “macrostructure” defined in sub-chapter 3.1. Annegret Bollée very pertinently explains that “The quality of a dictionary, as we know, is not measured by its macrostructure, the number of entries it contains, but by the microstructure, the richness of the information provided. under each featured word. (…) “After the heading or the transcription, most lexicographers indicate the grammatical class. Others have voluntarily given up this information, and the authors of the DCGF justify their decision by the fact that the question of word classes in Creole “is still the subject of debate. […] We suggest, in our grammar summary, that the boundaries between word classes are in any case less watertight in Creole than in French” (p. 12). For this debate, we refer to issue 138 (2000) of the journal Langages on the Syntax of Creole Languages ​​(ed. by Daniel Véronique).” (…) “For all French Creoles, there is also the problem of morphological variation, concerning words with or without agglutination of the (French) article or [z] final of the determinants, cf. for example Mauricien (l)abazour, (l)abonnman, (la)bonte, (l)adisyon, (l)administrasyon in the DKM (the number of variants increases significantly if we consult LPT and DKM). While Baker and Hookoomsing have attempted to identify “primary” and “secondary” variants (the less common “secondary” variants are indicated in parentheses after the entry, with cross-reference in alphabetical order), this process proved impractical in the face of the hundreds of variants retained in the Seychellois dictionary, where agglutination has remained a productive process until the present day.

The insight that Annegret Bollée provides on the “microstructure” of the dictionary is first-rate and it clearly shows that the “microstructure” occupies a central place, methodologically, in any lexicographical enterprise. It is in fact on the register of microstructure that the lexicographer records the lexicographic data on the term (the lexical unit), following the “star word” which is also designated by the term “entry”. The “featured words” are classified in alphabetical order and it is through their listing that we access information on the concepts covered in the dictionary. In some authors the microstructure is called the dictionary “rubric” or

the dictionary “article”. We note below some examples of microstructure from Creole dictionaries and lexicons and, for comparison, from the “Robert Junior” dictionary. [NOTE — Le « Robert Junior » est un dictionnaire scolaire élaboré par les Éditions Le Robert. Cet éditeur publie une gamme diversifiée de dictionnaires scolaires, notamment « Le Robert collège », « Le Robert benjamin », « Le Robert junior nord-américain », « Le Robert micro », etc. La lexicographie française contemporaine s’est amplement enrichie des travaux lexicographiques menés aux Éditions Le Robert. Ces travaux ont longtemps été dirigés par le célèbre lexicographe français Alain Rey, disciple de Paul Robert (1910-1980), l’auteur du dictionnaire qui porte depuis lors son nom. Alain Rey a dirigé l’élaboration du Grand Robert de la langue française (en neuf volumes, 1985) qui comprend environ 75 000 entrées ; il a dirigé ceux du Nouveau Petit Robert de la langue française (1993) ainsi que ceux du Dictionnaire historique de la langue française (1992)]. Paul Robert’s flagship work is the Alphabetical and Analogical Dictionary of the French Language published from 1953 to 1964 in six volumes and a supplement.]

1. Example of microstructure from the “Robert Junior” dictionary, 2024 edition

dejection nm 1. Great sadness which tires. He was in a state of deep despondency. / synonym: overwhelm. 2. reduction. A tax reduction. Word from the family to bring down.

2. Example of microstructure from “Haitian Creole-English Bilingual Dictionary” by Albert Valdman (2007 edition) page 190

drive1 (drivaye) v. tr. 1 to cast aspersion on s.o. Se drive l ap drive non ou a. What she was doing is casting aspersion on you. 2 to abuse, exploit [sexually] Msye fin drive fi a enpi li kite. The man completely exploited the girl and he left her.

drive2 v. tr. to wear daily [informal clothing] Sa se rad pou m drive. These are informal clothes that I can wear every day. *rad drive see rad

drive3 v. intr. 1 to drift, wander aimlessly, hang around Ase drive nan katye a. Enough hanging around aimlessly in the neighborhood. cf drivaye 2 to be lying around [object] Valiz w ap drive atè a. Your suitcase is lying on the ground.

3. Exemple de microstructure provenant du « Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative »

TABLEAU 1

airtrackair conditioner/air cleanerandreplica plate onepiplak pou replik sou multipleregressionanalysisregression analysishow many more matings would you like to perform ?How many crosses do you want to achieve?spin angular moment momentangularpivot 4.Examples of microstructure from(1) Lexicreole: examples of the development of some akphrase words from 1986 » d’Emmanuel W. Védrine, summer 2000; (2) It issample of English terms accompanied by their Creole equivalents in the “ English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole » by Emmanuel W. Védrine

4.1.THE HYPOCRITES ARE ASTONISHED: (fr.). One of Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s slogans was used during his presidential campaign (October – December 1990). Aristide refers to all the people who did not like him (community activists who want his life for a change in the country of Haiti). He used this slogan throughout his campaign in the tenth ward. [«Ipokrityosezi»lèyotandeTitidkandida.]

THE KASE DAY MARK: (fr.). Frazki has been used since February 7, 1986 to refer to Bebe Dòkki, who left power under pressure from the sovereign. [Se sèlmankemakak la ki te kase (fr.fam.).]

PENTAD: (n.). Birds, poultry.[«Pentad» se yonbètkimalen, pakonprann ou kapabkenbe l fasil.]. [Chasè a fizye de «pentad».]. 2. On the government of Father Doc, he chose the “pentad” as an important symbol. People could see a photo pentad about ambition in many things related to the government. After the inauguration of Roger Lafontant (from 6 to 7 January 1991) to give power to Panzou, many Haitians came to see him as a “pentad” (Yonbetmalen). In addition, the term “pentad” belongs to the “literatimakout” and Lafontant became the biggest makout in Janklodla’s government. [Msyetankouyon«pentad» (msyemalenanpil).]

4.2. Sample of English terms followed by their Creole equivalents in the «English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole » by Emmanuel Védrine

English termsCreole equivalentsFor comparison, French equivalent from the Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique auto feederfull of itselfautomatic feederbrowser brozer (creolized English term)Navigatorfloppydiskfailfloppy diskfoldercoversdossierinsert envelopes in your printerenvelope in your printer (borrower, borrower).NOTE – “Sentential sequence” instead of a Creole lexical unitmy list haslismwengenyenNOTE – “Sentential sequence” instead of a Creole lexical unitscroll down to viewlook downNOTE – “Sentence sequence” instead of a Creole lexical unitsearch enginemotor searchsearch engineformatingtoolbarbazutiformaformatting toolbar Analytical insight

First example –The lexicographic information contained in the microstructure (or dictionary “section” or dictionary “article”) of the “Robert Junior” dictionary is of high quality: the term “ deduction “is followed by its grammatical categorization, nmThe microstructure presents the two meanings of the term and the statement of the definition is concise, it contains the defining features sufficiently illuminating the notion of ” deduction “. The notional reference system is easily accessible by the indication that the term “ deduction »is a word from the family of “ fell ».

Second example –The lexicographic information contained in the microstructure of Albert Valdman’s “HaitianCreole-English BilingualDictionnary” is rigorously consistent, thus attesting that the microstructure of this dictionary is consistent with the methodology of professional lexicography. This microstructure exposes the three meanings of the term “ drive “. The first mention of the term “ drive1» is immediately followed by the grammatical categorization v. tr.transitive verb, itself followed by the term “ drift “, which immediately suggests to the user that this is a synonym of the transitive verb ” drive “. For the first certification of “ drive1» transitive verb, the two distinct meanings are preceded by the numbers 1 and 2 indicated in bold letters, and they are followed by a contextual statement in Creole translated into English for the English-speaking user to whom this dictionary is aimed. The second certificate of drive2 is immediately followed by grammatical categorization v. tr., transitive verb. The term drive2 is followed by an English definition, itself followed by a Creole contextual statement followed by an explanatory statement in English. The second certificate of drive2 is followed by a reference to rad drive : seerad. The third occurrence of drive3is immediately followed by grammatical categorization v. in., intransitive verb, followed by the presentation of the two meanings of this term indicated by the numbers 1 and 2 in bold letters. The first meaning of drive3 is formulated in English, followed by a contextual statement in Creole, itself followed by a similar contextual statement in English. The dictionary then makes a reference to “drivaye” with the mention “cfdrivaye”. The second meaning of drive3 is given in English, followed by a contextual statement in Creole translated into English. The editorial protocol of “ drive » is a standard and standardized protocol. It is characterized by the conciseness and clarity in the formulation of the lexicographic information contained in the microstructure of this dictionary. We openly plead so that the editorial protocol of this dictionary, which is a standard and uniform protocol, is that of all dictionaries of Creole lexicography. To achieve this, the Faculty of Applied Linguistics of the State University of Haiti will have to take up the great challenge of expanding and consolidating its lexicography training program focused, among other things, on professionalization. of the profession of lexicographer.

Third example — The lexicographic information contained in the microstructure of the« GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative »is very poor in methodological terms and in terms of its lexicographic content. This microstructure boils down to the listing of English terms followed by equivalents labeled “Creole” which are often fanciful, erratic and do not conform to the morphosyntactic system of Creole. The editors of this “Glossary” claim to “enrich” Creole with new scientific terms but the user who consults this work on the Web does not know at any time whether the “Creole” equivalents belong to this or that scientific and technical field or to that of mathematics: no “guide” for the user informs them of this, no heading such as “indexing by field of employment” appears there. The editors of this “Glossary, who completely ignore the methodology of professional lexicography, have tinkered with “Creole” equivalents outside of mastering the process of ” lemmatisation » treated by Annegret Bollée in sub-chapter 3.2 of her article. It follows logically – in connection with the heavy ignorance of the status and functions of the “ lexical unit ” (the ” lexie », l’« item lexical “) placed in the alphabetical “entry” of this “Glossary” – that the “Creole” equivalents are often made up of a series of opaque, a-semantic, erratic and incomprehensible words for the Creole speaker. THE “problem of cutting lexical units » addressed by Annegret Bollée in her article is blatant in the «GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative »whose editors, unable to identifyl’« item lexical » in the source language (English) and in the target language (Creole), do not hesitate to circumvent the real translational difficulties in Creole by resorting to a “translational phraseology” / “definitive phraseology” used in place of the lexical units at the “entry” of the work. In the field of statistics, the Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique (GDT) records, for the complex English term “ multiple regressionanalysis” (see above), the French equivalent “ multiple regression analysis. For its part, TermiumPlus, Canada’s terminology database, records the French equivalent like the GDT « multiple regression analysis” for the complex term “ multiple regressionanalysis” in the field of statistics. We are therefore light years away from the fanciful and erratic “analiz pou yonmakonnayregresyon” recorded in the “Glossary” as the “Creole” equivalent of “ multiple regression analysis”. The defining feature established by the form “ yonmakonnayregresyon” is all the more erratic since “makonnay” does not belong to the same semantic area as “regression”, and that “yonmakonnayregresyon” does not say how there would be “yonmakònay” and that this “makònay” would be of the “regresyon” type. In the rigorous “HaitianCreole-English BilingualDictionnary » by Albert Valdman (Creole Institute, Indiana University, 2007), the Creole term “makònay» (page 448) refers to the semantic area of “entanglement”=“entanglement”, “entanglement”, and “mixing” refers to “mixture”, “mixage”. Once again we are far from a “Glossary” developed according to the methodology of professional lexicography and confusion has arisen with the help of “Creole” equivalents as opaque as fanciful of the “yonmakonnayregresyon” type. The heavy ignorance of the status and functions of the “ lexical unit ” (the ” lexie », l’« item lexical “) to be placed as an entry in the Creole dictionary explains that the«GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative »has introduced in “entry/star” a sentence in place of l’« lexical unit “. Example :«how many more matings would you like to perform ?»whose equivalent«Creole»is the interrogative form «how many crossovers will be achieved?».

Finally theanalytical evaluation of this “Glossary” is rich in first-rate teaching, particularly with regard to CRITERION OF THE ACCURACY OF LEXICAL EQUIVALENCE SPOUSE TO THAT OF NOTIONAL EQUIVALENCE : THIS MAJOR CRITERION PLACED AT THE CENTER OF ANY RIGOROUS LEXICOGRAPHICAL AND TERMINOLOGICAL APPROACH IS ABSENT IN A LARGE NUMBER OF “CREOLE” EQUIVALENT PSEUDO OF THE «GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative ».

Fourth example — The lexicographic information contained in the microstructure of the« Lexicreole: examples of the development of some words and phrases from 1986 » and in the “ English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole » by Emmanuel W. Védrine is seriously deficient on a methodological and lexicographical level.

We observe that several “entries” of the “Leksik kreyòl” are “sentential segments” of the “political slogan” or “proverb” type instead of the “ lexical unit “. Védrine pays little attention from methodology of professional lexicography when it displays “Creole” equivalents outside of the mastery of the process of ” lemmatisation » treated by Annegret Bollée in subchapter 3.2 of her article. This logically results in ample and constant theoretical confusion – linked to the heavy ignorance of the status and functions of the ” lexical unit ” (the ” lexie », l’« item lexical “) when it is placed at the entry of this poorly named “lexicon” which is in reality a glossary.

Let us specify it further: in the «English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole », Emmanuel Védrine confuses a “ lexical unit ” and an ” sentence sequence “: this heavy confusion comes from the observed ignorance of the status and functions of the ” lexical unit ” (the ” lexie », l’« item lexical “). Ignoring these status and function studied by Annegret Bollée in subchapter 3.2 of her article dealing with “ lemmatisation », Emmanuel Védrine confusedly substitutes them in alphabetical “entry” with “ sentence sequences “. This way of proceeding is emblematic of one of the greatest gaps in Creole translation and lexicographywhich consists – through the use of the “circumvention process” – in the use of “translational periphrases” or “definitive periphrases” in place of a “ lexical unit “. Here are examples.

TABLEAU 3 –Sample of “sentence sequences” used in place of a “lexical unit” in alphabetical “entry”

English termscoming from “English – Haitian Creole computer terms » / Computer Terms: English – Creole »Creole equivalents coming from “English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole » insert envelopes in your printer envelope in your printer (borrower, borrower).scroll down to view look down English termscoming from “ GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative »Creole termscoming from “ GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative » multipleregressionanalysisregression analysishow many more matings would you like to perform ?How many crosses do you want to achieve? On the register of a seriously deficient lexicography, on that of “ borlette lexicography » promoted by the MIT Haiti Initiative, there is a commonality of view and erratic practices between the “Creole Leksik” of Vedrine and the “Creole Leksik” GlossaryofSTEM termsfrom theMIT–Haiti Initiative »(see our articles “ The lexicographic treatment of Creole in the “Leksikkreyòl” of Emmanuel W. Védrine »(Rezonòdwès, August 12, 2021) and « The sinking of Creole lexicography at the MIT Haiti Initiative » (Le National, Port-au-Prince, February 15, 2022).

Taken from “Leksikkreyòl” by Emmanuel W. Védrine, here are other examples of more or less syntagmatized expressions and/or quasi-proverbs recorded as “entry” as lexical units without any methodological basis: 15 ipokrit yo sezi: (fr.), 17. kemakak la kase: (fr.), 22. manmanpoul la: (fr.), 28. se pa pou lajan non! : (fr.), 30. seeAyiti monte: (fr). In a lexicographic work developed according to the usual rules of professional lexicology, the editor would have proceeded to segment the sequences to retain only the lexicalized unitterms and phrases: he would have recorded, with supporting sources, the “ipokrit” unitterms, “makak” and “poul”, while noting in a “Notes” field the derivatives composed from these terms. Amateurism, superficiality, incompetence and the proven absence of rigorous methodological criteria in terms of lexicography constitute the strong link between Emmanuel W. Védrine’s “Leksikkreyòl” and the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative” (on this “Glossary”, see our critical report published in Haiti , “ The lexicographic treatment of Creole in the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative », The National, July 21, 2020).

On a comparative level, between the “English – HaitianCreole computer terms » / TèmKompyoutère : English – Creole » by Emmanuel Védrine (see Table 1) and the “Glossary of STEM terms from the MIT – Haiti Initiative”, there is therefore an obvious relationship amid very serious methodological deficiencies. This concerns the total absence of recourse to the reference corpus to be analyzed as well as the absence of criteria for establishing the nomenclature of these two lexicons. Consequently, the lexicographical treatment of the terms gathered randomly in these two lexicons is therefore carried out on sight, in the confusion of notions, in the serious gaps in lexical accuracy between the English terms and the Creole equivalents. These serious shortcomings are displayed at the bedside of a verbose amateurism which believes it can r give itself the appearance of a lexicographical “science” outside of the methodology of professional lexicography.

The term ” formatingtoolbar » has the Creole equivalent « bazutiforma “. In the IT field, the term “formatingtoolbar” has the French equivalent “barre d’outil de formatage” according to the Linguee English-French Dictionary. The French equivalent “formatting toolbar” is conceptually correct because the central idea is that of computer “formatting”, which means “Operation consisting of preparing the surface of a storage medium (hard disk, floppy disk , optical disk), so that it can receive information corresponding to a given format” (Great terminological dictionary of the Office québécois de la langue française). These defining features of “formatting” make it possible to understand that the Creole equivalent “bazoutifòma” is erratic, false and opaque, especially since it can put the user on the trail of an erroneous meaning such as “give a format tool” completely opposite to the original English term. The “bazouti” segment emphasizes the “bar” even though the notion covered by “formatingtoolbar” designates the “formatting” operation accessible from the “toolbar”. This is a “Narrow rectangle usually displayed under the menu bar, which contains icons or symbols representing the most common functions of software and which is customizable by the user” (Great Office Terminological Dictionary Quebecois of the French language).

L’analytical evaluation of the two lexicographical works of Emmanuel W. Védrine – like the evaluation of the “Glossary” of the MIT Haiti Initiative – is rich in first-rate teaching, particularly with regard to CRITERION OF THE ACCURACY OF LEXICAL EQUIVALENCE SPOUSE TO THAT OF NOTIONAL EQUIVALENCE : THIS MAJOR CRITERION PLACED AT THE CENTER OF ANY RIGOROUS LEXICOGRAPHICAL AND TERMINOLOGICAL APPROACH IS ABSENT IN A LARGE NUMBER OF “CREOLE” EQUIVALENT PSEUDO OF THESE TWO PUBLICATIONS.

In our article “ Contemporary challenges of translation and Creole lexicography in Haiti » (Fondaskreyòl, February 8, 2024), we have formulated several ideas and proposals that need to be updated.

By developing lexicographic tools of high scientific quality (dictionaries, lexicons, specialized vocabularies, glossaries), Creole lexicography will be able to contribute greatly to the teaching of Creole in the future. In their diversity and in their relevance, future Creole lexicographic projects will provide the didactization of

Creole a wide range of Creole terms intended to name realities, objects, ideas, etc. However, it must be remembered that the contribution of Creole lexicography cannot

limit ourselves to the provision of terms for the teaching of Creole: in a transversal and joint approach, it will be a question of developing using the tools of lexicography and

didactics a learned Creole speech » understood in the sense of the establishment of “ metalanguage » which Creole needs to be truly didactized. The speech

learned Creole” is not that of usual communications between speakers in daily life, it rather calls on a combinatory linking terms to ideas and concepts, to abstraction and to the different forms of logical reasoning, to conceptualization and to the modeling of bodies of ideas as well as to Creole scientific and technical neology, a new field which must be developed while anchoring it to the methodology of professional lexicography.

In what way can Creole lexicography be useful, on an educational and didactic level, to the transmission of knowledge and knowledge in the Haitian School? Several publishers of Creole school textbooks have repeatedly informed us of the difficulties experienced by designers/editors of works on mathematics, experimental sciences, etc., who lackwriting support tools. They still do not have at their disposal a Creole dictionary and a French-Creole dictionary developed according to the methodology of professional lexicography and capable of serving them as a reference and guide. They still do not have bilingual French-Creole lexicons developed according to the methodology of professional lexicography and capable of serving them as a reference and guide. This generalized deficiency ofwriting support tools has the constant effect that each editor designs and develops Creole school textbooks according to his own “method”, according to his degree of mastery in Creole of the basic concepts of the subjects in question and according to his own conception of the language level which he considers appropriate to the writing of school textbooks. The writing of Creole school textbooks in the deprivation ofwriting assistance tools is therefore carried out in relative anarchy and outside of a standardized editorial reference model. Contemporary Creole lexicography – through the development of a monolingual Creole dictionary, a bilingual French-Creole dictionary and specialized lexicons – will provide functional and reliable responses to the lack ofwriting assistance tools quality textbooks. It is therefore a question of promoting and supporting the upcoming opening of several major lexicographic projects: the Faculty of Applied Linguistics of the State University of Haiti will have to play a driving role of direction and supervision in the implementation road to such construction sites.

We observe that the Ministry of Education has still not developed a national school book policy providing writers and publishers of Creole school materials with the linguistic parameters for the standardization of the entire production of language tools. Creole kindergarten or Creole French bilinguals. While it is true that the Ministry of National Education has several “Technical Directorates”, notably theCurriculum and Quality Directorate (DCQ) which, in theory, should contribute to the development of the national school book policy, it is attested that school textbook publishers still do not benefit from institutionalized and sustained support for the production of standardized Creole school textbooks and quality. In recent years, the production of standardized and quality Creole school textbooks has come up against the linguistic populism and to Creolist demagoguery promoted by the ex-minister in factof National Education Nesmy Manigat, the media star of the neo-Duvalierist PHTK politico-mafia cartel. Far from a scientific approach to Creole and the development of quality school books in Creole, the Ministry of National Education has prioritized unconstitutional and flashy measures (example: the exclusive financing of school textbooks creoles), as well as the unilateral financing of 7 different versions of LIV INIK AN KREYÒL published by 7 different publishers. In the current state, the Ministry of National Education does not have any action plan intended to support and standardize the development of Creole school textbooks and even fewer Creole lexicographic tools that the Haitian School needs. . On the other hand, it is completely illusory to think that the microstructure called Akademikreyòlayisyen – whose action has been almost zero on a national scale since its creation in 2014 and whose intellectual horizon does not extend beyond the narrow window of “bay kreyòl la jarèt” – would carry any action plan intended to contribute to the development of Creole lexicographical tools. It is amply attested that the Akademikreyòlayisyen has no proven skills in Creole lexicography, nor in scientific and technical Creole translation: from 2014 to 2024, apart from his anemic catechism dealing with Creole spelling, the ‘Akademikreyòlayisyen has not produced any scientific study in the key areas of Creole planning, Creole didactics, Creole didactization and Creole lexicography…

The contemporary challenges of Creole lexicography are also of the order of academic training of lexicographers and the Faculty of Applied Linguistics of the State University of Haiti has a leading role to play in a deleterious environment where the Haitian State – resigned with regard to the simultaneous development of the two languages ​​of our historical linguistic heritage, Creole and French–, gives no real priority to education in Haiti.

The institutional dimension of Creole lexicography therefore turns out to be a primary requirement: the professionalization of the profession of lexicographer (like the professionalization of the profession of general translator or technical and scientific translator) necessarily requires adequate training at the University. With regard to training in lexicography, it is quite indicated that the “ Translation techniques training program » launched in 2017 at the Faculty of Applied Linguistics (FLA) of the State University of Haiti, in partnership with the LEVE Association, will have to be reinforced by the introduction of specific lexicography courses. One of the programmatic options to explore would be that from the second year of the bachelor’s degree in linguistics, the FLA offers a double specialization in Creole translation/lexicography. This double specialization in Creole translation/lexicography could be enriched by the addition of courses in Creole didactics/didacticization. As we have argued in several articles, one of the greatest challenges of Creole lexicography is the break with pre-scientific amateurism in order to achieve analytical reflection and scientific production firmly anchored on the foundation of methodology of professional lexicography. This is undoubtedly the only path leading to the professionalization of lexicography and the production of lexicographic tools consistent with the methodology of professional lexicography. The production of Creole lexicographical tools of high scientific quality – notably a monolingual Creole dictionary et a bilingual French-Creole school dictionary–, will be a major contribution in the teaching OF the Creole language and in the teaching IN Creole language of knowledge and knowledge in the Haitian School.