The thyroid cancer is a disease that causes few symptoms, but it is important to know the signs that should alert you so that you can consult a doctor quickly.

Early symptoms

The main symptom of thyroid cancer is the appearance of a nodule in the throat.

“In 95% of cases, the nodules detected are benign in nature: they are adenomas or cysts.” specifies the Cancer Research Foundation.

  • Thyroid nodule: This is a painless mass that forms in the thyroid. Most thyroid nodules are benign, but some can be cancerous;
  • Voice changes: Thyroid cancer can cause hoarseness, hoarseness, or other voice changes;
  • Difficulty swallowing: A thyroid tumor can grow and compress the esophagus, making swallowing difficult;
  • Difficulty breathing: A thyroid tumor can also compress the trachea, making breathing difficult;
  • Pain in the neck: Pain in the front part of the neck may be a sign of thyroid cancer;
  • Persistent cough: A cough that is not caused by a cold or other infection may be a sign of thyroid cancer.

Other possible symptoms

  • Fatigue excessive,
  • Unexplained weight loss,
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck,
  • Enlargement of the thyroid (goiter).

It is important to note that all of these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions. This is why it is important to see a doctor if you experience any of these symptoms so that they can make an accurate diagnosis.


The assessment which makes it possible to establish the diagnosis always begins with a complete medical examination, with a palpation of the thyroid and a medical questionnaire on the personal and family history of thyroid diseases.

The diagnosis of thyroid cancer is based on a set of tests, including:

  • Physical examination: The doctor will palpate your neck for thyroid nodules and examine your throat for other signs of the disease;
  • Thyroid ultrasound: This exam uses ultrasound to visualize the thyroid and detect the presence of nodules;
  • Thyroid scintigraphy: This medical imaging test uses a radioactive product to visualize the thyroid and determine if it is functioning properly;
  • Fine needle aspiration (PAAF): This procedure involves taking a sample of cells from the thyroid nodule using a fine needle. The cells are then analyzed in the laboratory to determine if they are cancerous.


Treatment for thyroid cancer depends on the type of cancer, its stage, and your overall health.

Treatment options include :

  • Surgery: Surgery involves removing the thyroid in whole or in part;
  • Iodine radiotherapy: This treatment uses radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cancer cells;
  • hormone replacement therapy: After your thyroid is removed, you will need to take replacement thyroid hormones to regulate your metabolism;
  • Chemotherapy : Chemotherapy is used to destroy cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.


The prognosis for thyroid cancer is generally good, especially if the disease is detected early. More than 90% of people with papillary thyroid cancer, the most common type of thyroid cancer, recover completely.

Anya El Hamdaoui


May 14, 2024, at 4:10 p.m.

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